Traditionally made from wool, tweeds are simply patterned woven textiles made with a variety of colorful yarns. Although it is primarily a woolen fabric, tweed can also be made from blends of wool, cotton, and synthetic fibers.
Where does tweed fit on our sustainable scale? Here, we explore how this fabric is made and how its environmental impacts compare to those of other fabrics.
How is tweed made?
The majority of tweed in the world is woven in Brittany, with wool that comes from Australia. Since tweed is a woolen material, the first step in making tweed is to shear the wool of the appropriate animals, in this case sheep. The wool fibers are then cleaned and carded into strands which are spun into spools of yarn. The fibers are usually dyed before weaving in order to achieve the colors and patterns for which tweed is known.
Types of tweed
There are many types of tweed. The way the textile is woven depends on the type of tweed produced.
Much of the tweed is produced using a twill weave. A 2/2 twill weave consists of a warp thread (vertical) floating on and then under two weft threads (horizontal). This results in a diagonal pattern. It is not uncommon for other weaves such as a 3/1 to be used as well depending on the desired pattern. Twill weave is a very strong weave and is often used for items that require more stability such as denim, bags, and furniture covers.
Harris Tweed is a brand fabric which is only produced in the Outer Hebrides, a chain of islands off the Scottish coast. What is unique about this material is that the wool is dyed before it is spun into yarn. This allows different colored fibers to be combined, creating a distinctive blend and design.
Harris Tweed uses low impact dyes instead of natural dyes, as plants that would typically be used are now protected. Most of the wool used in Harris Tweed comes from Scotland.
Tweed Bernat Klein
that of Bernat Klein coloring technique emerged in the 1950s and was one of the hallmarks associated with Chanel’s line of female costumes. His new yarn dyeing technique produced multi-colored yarns that created small patches of color in the fabric.
Klein also combined lightweight wool with mohair to create a luster effect on the fabric. The coloring technique as well as the variations in the twist of the yarn created textiles that stood out from the neutral-colored tweeds typical of the time.
Shipping tweed from Australia to other countries produces inevitable carbon emissions. However, the majority of environmental concerns come from cattle ranching.
According to a case study of sheep raised in the United States, more than 70% of all emissions from these farms come from methane. The higher emissions and impact of pasture irrigation come from these breeding farms for meat and dairy products. This dual-use agriculture is likely to become more common if the demand for wool declines.
Impact on sheep
Along with the environmental impacts of tweed production, there is some controversy surrounding sheep shearing. While many specialists say it’s inhuman not To shear sheep, animal activists often raise concerns about animal abuse and exploitation.
When it comes to making purchasing decisions, it is best to buy products made from wool from small farms. Do your research on companies and make sure workers are paid fairly and not per sheep shorn; this usually means that they can take their time and not cause undue harm to animals.
Tweed vs. cotton
While tweed can be made with other fibers, the majority of it is made from wool. Despite concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, wool is considered a low impact fiber because it does not require a lot of resources. This helps sheep generally graze on pastures without the need for additional feed.
Cotton, on the other hand, contributes significantly to pesticide pollution and water consumption. However, when grown organically, these problems are reduced. Cotton can also be grown without the possibility of harming animals, scoring environmental points itself.
The future of tweed
Tweed is a unique fabric that has simultaneously maintained its traditions while continuing to evolve. Most of the manufacturing has remained close to its original sites in the UK, which continues to be the main exporter.
Wool specifically produced in Australia that is marketed as organic is increasingly in demand. Consumer studies have shown that people are much more interested in the natural fibers in wool than in their synthetic counterparts.
However, having the fibers labeled as organic is not as strong a selling point as knowing where the wool comes from, how sustainable it is, and having concerns about animal welfare.